Partial Knee Replacement
For some persons with osteoarthritis of the knee, a partial knee replacement is a viable option to total knee replacement. When the damage is limited to a single compartment of the knee, this operation can be performed. Only the damaged section of the knee cartilage is replaced with a prosthesis in a partial knee replacement.
What is unicompartmental knee arthritis?
Unicompartmental osteoarthritis of the knee is a condition in which degenerative arthritis affects only one part of the knee joint, while the other regions (or “compartments”) of the knee remain healthy or not significantly damaged.
Knee joint anatomy
The knee joint is composed of three bones: The femur (thighbone), the patella (kneecap) and the tibia (shinbone). Two knob-like protuberances on the bottom of the femur known as the femoral condyles make up the top of the knee. The upper portion of the tibia known, as the tibial plateau, makes up the bottom. The kneecap rests in front of the femoral condyles.
What is partial knee replacement surgery?
In a partial knee replacement, only one compartment of the knee joint's bone surfaces is removed and replaced with implants, as opposed to several compartments in a total knee replacement. Unicompartmental arthritis is commonly treated with it.
"Unicompartmental knee arthritis affects patients who have cartilage deterioration in only one compartment or region of the knee. "Surgeons can remove damaged cartilage and bone in the sick area exclusively, while conserving the ligaments that help support the knee joint," adds Dr. Bhavya Shah, Orthopedic Surgeon at navkar Orthopaedic Clinic, "in cases when nonsurgical treatments do not provide symptom alleviation."
Is partial knee resurfacing the same thing as partial knee replacement ?
Yes. "Partial knee resurfacing surgery," "unicompartmental knee replacement," "unicondylar knee arthroplasty," or "unicondylar knee replacement" are all terms used to describe partial knee replacement. It's also referred to as a "uni" informally. (Some people refer to it as a "half knee replacement," but this is incorrect because the surgery only affects one of the three major compartments of the knee.)
If I have partial knee replacement, does that mean that I will no longer have arthritis of the knee?
Partial knee replacement will address the arthritis that is already present in the afflicted compartment of the knee. In addition, the surgery usually rebalances the knee, improving its stability. While it is uncommon, there is no guarantee that arthritis will not spread to other parts of the knee. If this happens, a total knee replacement may need to be revised surgically.
Who can benefit from partial knee replacement?
Patients with arthritis confined to a single compartment of the knee should consider partial knee replacement, which is often limited to patients who are not excessively obese (BMI greater than 40). The operation is not recommended for patients who have severe knee stiffness or a substantial angular deformity. To be a candidate, a patient's knee ligaments must be intact. Patients with an untreated ruptured ACL, for example, are rarely chosen for partial knee replacement. Because inflammatory arthritis often affects the entire joint, people with rheumatoid arthritis of the knee may also be ineligible.
What happens during partial knee replacement?
During partial knee replacement, the Dr. Bhavya Shah makes a small incision to gain access to the affected compartment of the knee. He or she gently pulls the knee's supporting components out of the way and removes damaged cartilage and bone tissue from the arthritic area's tibia and femur surfaces. After that, the surgeon prepares these surfaces for the insertion of the prosthesis components, which are custom-sized for each patient's joint.